Comparative study on international competitiveness of fruit products between Vietnam and ASEAN countries

Dong Qin - Pham Thi Xuan Huong (Shanghai University College of Economics)


Most of Southeast Asia is traditional agricultural countries with large land and abundant resources. The climate and soil are suitable for planting, especially tropical fruits. According to 2017 UN Comtrade statistics, Southeast Asia's fruit exports have exceeded 10% in the world market. Vietnam’s fruit brand in the international market is also very famous, and has received welcome in  more and more countries. At the same time, Vietnam’s fruit industry also attaches great importance to maintain the quality of fruit, efforts to improve the planting technology and production efficiency, processing specifications in order to meet the requirements of consumers worldwide; and is developing as many markets as to promote "Vietnamese fruit brands". This paper uses the fruit export data from 2001-2017 to calculate the RCA index of fruit export competitiveness and the international market share (IMS) to conduct a comparative study on the international export competitiveness of fruit products between Vietnam and ASEAN countries. In addition, it further studies the structure of fruit export industry in Vietnam, analyzes the problems in the fruit industry of Vietnam and gives some measures to better maintain the original fruit export products and develop more potential fruit export products.

Keywords: Vietnam’s fruit export, international competitiveness, RCA index, international market share.

Asian countries contributed 86 percent of the world's tropical fruits from 2015 to 2017, according to The Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Food outlook published in 2018. ASEAN's main producers, such as Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam, account for about a third of global output.

1. Vietnam and ASEAN fruit export overview

Southeast Asia belongs to the tropical monsoon climate and fertile soil. Most countries are traditional agricultural countries with tropical resources endowment, which is extremely conducive to the conditions for fruit cultivation. Nowadays, ASEAN countries enjoy a rapid development in economy, transport facilities and production technology, which promoted their trade with the world. Southeast Asia's fruits export are highly competitive in the world and the Asian countries are regarded as "the world fruits orchard ". In 2010, ASEAN countries’s fruit exports amounted to $3.04 billion, accounting for 4% of the world's fruit exports. Seven years later, in 2017, the amount of fruit exported by ASEAN countries exceeded 17.78 billion US dollars, with an increase of nearly 6 times and a market share of 10.2%. 


Except for Brunei and Cambodia, fruit exports from other ASEAN countries are growing. From 2010 to 2017, Indonesia's fruit exports increased from US $0.3 billion to US $0.9 billion. The volume of fruit exported from Laos is not stable and fluctuates greatly; In contrast, Malaysia and Singapore have seen steady growth in fruit exports. Myanmar's fruit exports grew rapidly from $0.003 billion in 2010 to $0.2 million in 2017.It is clear that the high status of ASEAN's fruit exports in the world is due to the contributions of the three major fruit exporters: the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

2. Literature review

Some scholars had studied the international competitiveness of ASEAN fruit products. Su Qing’E and He Shu Quan(2009) analyzed the competitiveness of China-Vietnam fruit trade from 2000 to 2007 by using the index of displayed comparative advantage (RCA). They found that China had a competitive edge in exporting mainly temperate fruits to Vietnam, only in oranges, apples and pears. In the ASEAN market, China's fruits trade has no competitiveness, while Vietnam's fruit trade has a strong competitiveness in cashew nuts, and small advantage in other fruits.

Li Shu Li (2013) used RCA index, RTA index, OBC coefficient and TCD index to find fruit products with comparative advantages between Chinese and ASEAN fruits and measure the complementarity of bilateral trade. The results showed that the fruits trade of China and ASEAN countries has obvious comparative advantages, and strong complementarity, and the ASEAN market potential is huge, China's export in the ASEAN market share is high, showing a two-way market access.

Huang Ying Ying (2017) calculated the RCA index based on the data from 2010 to 2015, and analyzed the competitiveness and complementarity of China-Thailand fruit trade through GL index and TCI index. Found the export market of tropical fruits in China and Thailand is highly competitive and complementary, concluded that the international competitiveness of Chinese temperate fruits is strong, and the export competitiveness of Thai tropical fruits is obviously stronger than that of China.

Zheng Guo Fu (2017) analyzed and compared the development of China-Thailand fruit trade, mainly due to the competitiveness, comparative disadvantages and complementarity of fruits. In Zheng Guo Fu (2019)’s research, he used RCA index to analyze the overall competitiveness of Thai’s fruit export trade, production structure and cooperation objects, pointed out some problems of fruit export in Thailand and gave some methods to optimize Thai’s fruits export.

Zhao Ping and He Mei Ying (2018) used the fruit trade data of China and Vietnam from 2007 to 2016 to analyze the competitiveness and complementarity of fruit trade between the two countries. In terms of trade complementarity, they found that the trade complementarity of China's export and Vietnam's import is more prominent. The trade complementarity of China's import and Vietnam's export has been weakened in some fruit types, but in general, the fruit trade complementarity between China and Vietnam is still obvious.

3. Analysis of the international competitiveness of fruit exports between Vietnam and other ASEANs

Many indexes can be selected to analyze the international trade competitiveness, but the RCA index is very commonly used, which can directly show the international competitiveness status of a country's exports. In addition to RCA index, IMS index is also used in this paper. For IMS index, the change of competitiveness and competitive position can be further understood through the proportion of a country’s export products in the market.

RCA is the index of demonstrative comparative advantage, Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA index) reflects the relative advantages of an industry in import and export trade. Therefore, this paper selects this index to reveal the competitiveness of fruits export of ASEAN countries. In general, RCA<0.8 indicates very weak competitiveness; a [0.8~1.25] RCA value indicates general competitiveness; a [1.25~2.5] RCA value indicates strong competitiveness, and if RCA>2.5, it indicates strong competitiveness. The calculation formula is:

RCA =    (Xij /Xit) /  (Xwj /Xwt)

Here, Xij is the export value of country j's export product i, Xit  is the total export value of country j, Xwj is the export value of the world's export product i, Xwt is the total export value of the world.

International market share (IMS) refers to the proportion of a country's export in the total export of the world, which can reflect the change of the international competitiveness or competitive position of a country's certain industries or products. The increase of the proportion indicates that the export competitiveness of the country's certain industries or products are enhanced. It includes, in the open international market, the proportion of the sales volume of certain country in the total sales volume of such products in the world and the proportion of the export volume of certain country in the total export volume of such products in the world. The higher the value, the stronger the international competitiveness of the industry in which the product is located, and vice versa. The calculation formula is:

IMS =   Xij / Xwj

Here, Xij  is the sales or export value of country j's export product i, Xwj is the sales or export value of the world's export product i.

The data in this article is from the United Nations Comtrade Database(UN Comtrade Statistics), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO Statistics) and Trade map-International Trade Statistics (ITC).The data span 2001 - 2017.

Table 2 shows the overall comparative advantage (RCA) of the ASEAN countries’ fruit export, among which Brunei, Cambodia, Malaysia and Singapore have very weak comparative disadvantage as their RCA<0.8. Indonesia's RCA index is growing slowly, and has been around 0.8 in recent years, with potential, but still is modest as 0.8<RCA<1.25. Thailand’s fruit export international competitiveness is significant, with competitive value of 1.25<RCA<2.5. Last but not least, Myanmar, the Philippines, Vietnam and Laos all have the value of RCA>2.5 in most of the years. According to the 2017 RCA index, the export competitiveness of ASEAN’s fruits can be ranked from weak to strong: Brunei (0.0003) < Cambodia (0.03) < Singapore (0.05) < Malaysia (0.12) < Indonesia (0.8) < Thailand (1.43) < Myanmar (2.59) < Philippines (3.79) < Vietnam (4.18) < Laos (6.02).

The trend line of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam shows a steady and increasing export of fruits in terms of the comparative advantage. It fluctuates a lot in other countries. In order to make a more comprehensive analysis of the international competitiveness of fruits exported by ASEAN countries, we may also look at the international market share of fruits exported by ASEAN countries.

It can be clearly seen from the table 3 that ASEAN’s export of fruits are increasing, accounting for 10.4% of the world market in 2017. In 2017, ASEAN fruit exports ranked first for Vietnam (5.36%), second for Thailand (2.02%) and third for the Philippines (1.55%). On the whole, Vietnam's fruit is particularly competitive internationally, accounting for 50% of the fruit exports in ASEAN

4. Analysis on structure and competitiveness of fruits export in Vietnam

4.1. Vietnam fruit export status

When analyzing the Vietnamese fruit export structure and competitiveness, the growth of Vietnamese fruit export in recent years shows that the quality of Vietnamese fruit is very good and the production chain has been stable to meet all the strict export conditions. At the same time, effective advertising, commercial publicity, Vietnamese fruit brands had built a bridge linking together with Vietnamese fruit farmers, production entrepreneurs and exporters to other countries' sales markets, more and more international friends know about Vietnamese fruit products.


From the picture above, we can know more about the rapid growth of Vietnamese export fruits in recent years. According to the UN comtrade database, Vietnamese fruit (HS08) exports amounted to US$385 million in 2001, accounting for 1.33% of the world's total fruit exports. From 2001 to 2010, Vietnam's fruits export grew steadily, in 2010, fruits export got a total of US$1.31 billion, a fourfold increase from 2001. After Vietnam entered the WTO, it also signed bilateral trade agreements with other countries, especially, under the "zero tariff" policy of China-ASEAN free trade area, Vietnam's fruits export volume increased rapidly from 2010 to 2017. In 2011, the value of fruit exports was US$1.733 billion, accounting for 2% of the world fruits export market,  US$1.98 billion in 2012; US$2.04 billion in 2013, in 2014, it further increased to US$2.57 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 21%, accounting for 2.5% of the world fruit export market. In recent years, Vietnam's fruit exports have made great strides. The value of Vietnam’s fruit exports reached US$3.27 billion in 2015, it reached US$4.612 billion in 2016, accounting for 4.2% of the world fruit export market. In 2017, Vietnam's fruit export volume surged to US$6.167 billion, accounting for 5.3% of the world fruit export market,the world's top-seven fruit exporter.

 4.2. Vietnam fruit export partners

After years of negotiations, Vietnamese production, packaging and export technology can allow fruit to enter more stringent markets: the United States, Japan, Australia, South Korea, New Zealand...The main export fruits are still dragon fruit, coconut, longyan, litchi, durian, rambutan, mango, watermelon, passion fruit....Most Vietnamese exporters are aware of the importance of product quality management, food safety and hygiene. A large number of fruit processing exporters have received certificates such as: HACCP, BRC,etc.Vietnamese fruit products are also more diversified (fresh, closed juice, concentrated, dried fruits, etc.). Currently, Vietnam's export markets include China, the United States, Japan, as well as Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, the European Union (EU), and Vietnam's fruit export market has penetrated to about 60 countries and regions. Vietnam’s export of longyan and litchi ranks second in the world. China is Vietnam's largest fruit export market, according to the Vietnam fruit and vegetable association, the export value was US$265 million in 2017. The dragon fruit in the Chinese market now mainly comes from Vietnam. In recent years, Vietnam hopes to export litchi, rambutan and pineapple to the Chinese market. Although there are still some strict regulations, Vietnam is very confident in the Chinese market.

The second market is Japan (US$127.2 million); Third place went to the European Union (US$106.4 million). The United States (US$102.1 million) is the forth. According to the latest information, with the increase of mangoes export from Vietnam to the United States in 2019, the total export of fruits to the United States will increase by 30% compared with last year. Vietnam also hopes to have a steadily export milk fruits to the American market.

4.3. Vietnam fruit export industrial structure

Fruit export products (HS08) are divided into 14 groups, ranging from HS0801 to HS0814. Several fruits export products of ASEAN countries rank first in the world, such as HS0801 and HS0813. In order to further understand the competitiveness of ASEAN exported fruits in the region, we can rank and compare the structure of fruit export. 

ASEAN fruit exports ranking in 2017

In overall, the strength of Vietnam’s fruit export in the association of ASEAN is the strongest, the most obvious is HS0801 (Coconuts, Brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled), it not only ranked first the association of ASEAN, but also in the world;In addition, HS0805, HS0807 and HS0814 exported by Vietnam are also No.1 in the ASEANs. Thailand also ranked 1 in HS0804, HS0810, HS0811, HS0812 and HS0813 in the ASEANs. Then there is Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia. At the bottom of the ASEAN list are Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Brunei. In order to further understand Vietnam, which is the strongest exporter of fruits in ASEAN, the production structure of Vietnam's fruit export will be analyzed below. 

Proportion of Viet Nam's fruit export in 2001, 2011 and 2017

Vietnam exports many tropical fruits, HS0801 is obviously the main Vietnam’s export fruit, which contributes above 50%. HS0810 such as fresh longyan, litchi, rambutan and dragon fruit are also well received in foreign markets. The export of was very high in 2001, the dry fruit of Vietnam is very famous and has appeared in many countries of the supermarket shelves, such as dry Vinamit brand of jackfruit and dry banana. However, with time and advanced technology, good dried fruits can also be produced in the production and processing chain of various countries, so Vietnam's dried fruits encountered strong competition in the international market, and the export volume had been reduced a lot. But Vietnam's dried fruit had been well received by consumers and maintained good quality, so exports have been stabilizing over the years. Exports of HS0804 are also going up. In recent years, Chinese, American and Japanese markets have welcomed Vietnamese mangoes and pineapples.

4.4. Competitiveness of main exported fruits of Vietnam

By collecting the data of Vietnam fruit export classification in 2001, 2011 and 2017, we can carry out RCA analysis and the market share of Vietnam fruit industry. 

RCA index of Vietnam's various fruits in 2001, 2011 and 2017

Below is the RCA index ranking of Vietnam's fruit export industry structure:

RCA index ranking of Vietnamese fruit export industry structure in 2001, 2011 and 2017

From the table, it can be seen from the data calculated by the RCA index of Vietnam's fruit export production structure shows that the international competitiveness of the fruit industry structure is basically very weak. In 2001, it was HS0809, HS0806 and HS0803 respectively. In 2011, it was HS0809, HS0808 and HS0807. In 2017, it was HS0806, HS0808 and HS0809. The international competitiveness of fruit export is strong, including HS0810, HS0813 and HS0804. In 2001,2011 and 2017, Vietnam fruit export industry, as well as the international export competitiveness is very strong - HS0801.

The market share of Vietnam export fruits in 2001, 2011 and 2017 is shown in the Table 8:

Market share of fruit industry classification in Vietnam in 2001, 2011 and ,2017

It can be seen from the analysis of the market share of Vietnam's fruit export industry classificati: In 2001, it can be seen that HS0801 leads the first place, accounting for 54.59% of the market. HS0813 is ranked second, accounting for 20.75 of the market. The third place is HS0810, accounting for 15.46% of the market. The product HS0809 is not exported. In 2011, HS0809 began to export but it was small, ranking the last, accounting for 0.0003% of the market. HS0801 accounts for 86.34% of the market. HS0810 is ranked second, accounting for 10.53% of the market. In 2017,the top position is HS0801, accounting for 56.5% of the market; the second position is HS0810, accounting for 28.96% of the market; HS0804 is at the third place, accounting for 5.7% of the market; the fourth position is HS0813, accounting for 2.48% of the market. Finally, we can see the main export fruits of Vietnam are HS0801, HS0810 and, this is completely in line with the actual situation. So it is important for the Vietnam continue to maintain the original export fruit products: HS0801, HS0810 and HS0813 to ensure the quality of planting, export packaging specifications, improve planting technology, improve production and processing efficiency. In addition, the export volume of HS0804 is very potential and is valued for development.

5. Problems and countermeasures of fruit export in Vietnam

Although Vietnam's fruit export competitiveness is significant, there are still some problems. If the output of fruit export can be increased in the future, the fruit export industry must have specific solutions to overcome shortcomings and obstacles and bring Vietnam's fruit export a greater prospect.

First, the production scale is small, the typical farmer production. Over the years, Vietnamese fruit producers, especially in the Mekong delta, have largely built fruit orchards on their own land, characterized by self-sufficiency. And few farmers seem to have a strategy to expand their plantations and create a larger area of production dedicated to a variety of fruits to supply the market. In addition, the fruit producing areas in Vietnam are mainly mixed gardens with few professional orchards. At present, each province adjusts their agricultural area based on their agricultural structures. But these plans are still not focused on creating competitive areas of production. This is why the fruit exports lacks of stability. The number of special agricultural areas is still small, not adapt to big orders and short time supply. So far, some provinces have formed many specialized agricultural areas, such as mango of Tien Giang, dragon fruit of Binh Thuan, haiyang lychee of Bac Giang, grape of Ninh Thuan and grapefruit of Vinh Long.But sources of materials for exports remain scarce. At the same time, seed sources and care procedures are uneven and unstable to facilitate production. Not only that, Vietnam's fruit import market also set up many technical barriers in terms of quarantine instead of the previous tariffs, allowing producers to change the new production and storage technology enough to meet the needs of customers. On the other hand, according to the assessment of many scientists, in small and discrete production areas of different plantations, the stages of care, irrigation and harvesting can only be spread out. In addition, small-scale production increases production costs in terms of irrigation, fertilization and production, resulting in producers not receiving as much profit as expected, making it difficult for buyers to choose fruit orchards with product quality. When going through many of these stages, product quality, even at its best, is difficult to maintain at optimum temperature, and some places are not very good at the fruit preservation stage.

Secondly, the transportation is unfavorable and the infrastructure is not enough to meet the needs of large cargo transportation. Transport and logistics infrastructure is also the key to reduce the wing power of the fruit production and export industries, with inadequate post-harvest processing and storage. Almost all the produce from the farm has been transported many times before it reaches the big truck, then it is transported to the central area. For fruit products, multiple loading and unloading will also reduce the quality of products. Multiple loading and unloading lower the purchase price and cause great damage to the producers. So transportation is an important factor to improve the quality of fruit growing. Vietnam has gradually improved  transport conditions, building more transport infrastructure, developing more water transport, reducing the pressure of land transport, opening up the bottleneck of goods distribution, circulation and transportation, which will link Vietnam and international markets.

Third, it is necessary to improve the fruit quality to meet domestic and foreign requirements. When Vietnam joins many free-trade agreements, there are no tariff barriers and the quality competition is only remained factor.  Foreign fruit has hit the Vietnamese market via free trade agreements. This situation brings two major problems for the Vietnam’s domestic fruit industry including how to get domestic consumers to choose domestic products and how to compete with delicious and exotic imported fruits. This is not obstacles but a force for domestic producers and companies to improve their processes, and meet food hygiene and safety standards in order to produce competitive high quality products. Of particular importance is that the country's fruit industry is competitive and dynamic, and farmers involve in production must have a spirit of learning, in-depth understanding of consumer preferences and choice of product needs. Places being planned for the fruit production, should pay attention to the garden and product quality standards, so that in addition to providing processing, export enterprises, service to foreign consumers, now domestic consumers also appreciate the improvement of product quality, improve the domestic credit heart. The steady source of income that domestic consumers bring to fruit producers will create more confidence, reassurance and motivation to improve the quality of their products for the international market. Consumers, especially those in picky markets, have always set clear standards for the products they choose. For example, Europeans prefer small pitaya (about 300g/fruit), while consumers in the US prefer large pitaya (about 500g/fruit).This is just the size standard, not to mention the strict quality and safety quarantine standards. Therefore, for each market demand, domestic enterprises must create appropriate material areas and maintain long-term trust and good reputation to consumers. Obviously, with the micro level movement of each enterprise, getting more "nods" from importers, the result of the government level negotiations is also a great opportunity to continue to develop the fruit export market.

Finally, the issues of trademark proliferation and trade promotion should receive more attention. Recently, Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Vietnam’s fruit and vegetable association have worked together to find solutions to enter the United States, Europe, South Korea, Japan and the Netherlands. For example, trade delegations were organized at the food industry fair in New York. To promote the image of Vietnamese fresh fruit products and processed products to international consumers, the "Vietnamese food brand" program have been launched and the national brands for Vietnamese food, including fruit products, have been establish, In addition, Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade is working with Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Vietnam Ministry of Science and Technology to improve the value chain, diversify fruit products, enhance deep processing, diversify markets, and open up Vietnam's fruit markets through free trade agreements which have been signed. One problem is the supply of raw materials for processing export and fresh export, when large orders have to be delivered in a short time, it is difficult to mobilize and centralize raw materials throughout the region, and sometimes it has to import raw materials for processing fruit. The main reason is still the lack of a large concentration of raw material production. So, if possible, governments should encourage producers to establish or join cooperatives and cooperative groups so as to have a solid legal position in internal and external trade, create an initial supply of stable agricultural products, and learn many new production techniques from such cooperation. In addition to the corporate model, the government can also expand the limited land policy and improve the land management level of enterprises to promote production. Before investing in production, local governments need to allocate and balance each sector within their long-term agricultural production plans. In this process, it is needed to pay special attention to enterprises and give priority to the development of collective economy including cooperatives and cooperative groups.

6. Conclusion

Through empirical analysis on fruit export comparative advantage (RCA), the international competitiveness and the calculation of the market share (IMS), it can be seen in Vietnam in the association of South East Asian nations (ASEAN) fruit export status is very high, is the first big export fruit in ASEAN countries temporarily, also particularly strong international competitiveness, the actual situation is fruit export ranking seventh place in the world. In-depth understanding of Vietnam's fruit industry structure also reveals the actual situation which is very consistent with Vietnam’s fruits export. Vietnam’s fruit export mainly relies on HS0801, HS0810 and HS0813; the product HS0804 exports are also growing and have potential in the future. Although Vietnam's fruit exports have strong international competitiveness, there are still some problems such as production scale, transportation inconvenience...They are both challenges and opportunities for Vietnam's fruit exports. In the future, Vietnamese fruit growers should pay more attention to the quality and specification of fruits in order to better meet the needs of consumers at home and abroad, ensure the reputation of Vietnamese fruit brand, and hold a learning spirit to the trading partners so as to further develop planting technology, improve equipment and measures in order to improve production results. In addition, fruit processors, traders should also attach more importance to their brand and trademark and improve production, promote trade. Finally, the most important thing is that the Vietnamese government can give fruit growers, processing enterprises better production policies, develop and organize large-scale collective planting areas; Protect growers' product prices and study the copyright of planting technology; Improve the basic measures of transportation and introduce Vietnamese fruit brands all over the world to develop more markets.


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PGS. TS. Dong Qin

Th.S NCS. Phạm Thị Xuân Hương

             Học viện Kinh tế - Trường Đại học Thượng Hải, Trung Quốc                                              


Hầu hết các nước Đông Nam Á là có nền nông nghiệp truyền thống với đất đai rộng lớn và tài nguyên phong phú, khí hậu và đất thích hợp để trồng trọt, đặc biệt là trái cây nhiệt đới. Theo dữ liệu của UN Comtrade năm 2017, xuất khẩu trái cây của Đông Nam Á đã vượt quá 10% trên thị trường thế giới. Thương hiệu trái cây Việt Nam trên thị trường quốc tế cũng rất nổi tiếng, và được chào đón bởi rất nhiều quốc gia. Đồng thời, ngành công nghiệp trái cây Việt Nam cũng rất coi trọng việc duy trì chất lượng trái cây, nỗ lực nâng cao công nghệ trồng trọt và đảm bảo hiệu quả sản xuất, quy trình chế biến nhằm đáp ứng yêu cầu của người tiêu dùng trên toàn thế giới; đồng thời phát triển càng nhiều thị trường để quảng bá "thương hiệu trái cây Việt Nam". Bài viết này sử dụng dữ liệu xuất khẩu trái cây từ năm 2001-2017 để tính chỉ số năng lực cạnh tranh xuất khẩu trái cây (RCA) và thị phần quốc tế (IMS) nhằm thực hiện nghiên cứu so sánh về khả năng cạnh tranh xuất khẩu quốc tế của các sản phẩm trái cây giữa Việt Nam và các nước ASEAN. Ngoài ra, bài viết nghiên cứu thêm về cơ cấu ngành xuất khẩu trái cây ở Việt Nam, phân tích các vấn đề trong ngành trái cây ở Việt Nam và đưa ra một số biện pháp nhằm duy trì các sản phẩm trái cây đã xuất khẩu đạt hiệu quả cao nhất, đồng thời phát triển kĩ thuật để nâng cao khả năng xuất khẩu cho những sản phẩm trái cây tiềm năng.

Từ khóa: Xuất khẩu trái cây Việt Nam, khả năng cạnh tranh quốc tế, chỉ số RCA, thị phần quốc tế.